path: root/CONTRIBUTING.asciidoc
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authorLoïc Hoguin <[email protected]>2015-07-25 12:22:39 +0200
committerLoïc Hoguin <[email protected]>2015-07-25 12:22:39 +0200
commit73cd4458c3caab9e723e85af9441002c08c986c2 (patch)
treeb3684f90add049bfe18d2d6953f2094a69a255e9 /CONTRIBUTING.asciidoc
parentd2924de2b6a2634a40d2b57c0fdeed255f0d2acd (diff)
Update the CONTRIBUTING file
Looks like I pushed too early in the previous commit. Oops!
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+= Contributing
+This document is a guide on how to best contribute to this project.
-This document describes the usages and rules to follow when contributing
-to this project.
+== Definitions
-It uses the uppercase keywords SHOULD for optional but highly recommended
-conditions and MUST for required conditions.
+*SHOULD* describes optional steps. *MUST* describes mandatory steps.
-`git` is a distributed source code versioning system. This document refers
-to three different repositories hosting the source code of the project.
-`Your local copy` refers to the copy of the repository that you have on
-your computer. The remote repository `origin` refers to your fork of the
-project's repository that you can find in your GitHub account. The remote
-repository `upstream` refers to the official repository for this project.
+*SHOULD NOT* and *MUST NOT* describes pitfalls to avoid.
-Following this document will ensure prompt merging of your work in the
-`master` branch of the project.
+_Your local copy_ refers to the copy of the repository that you have
+on your computer. _origin_ refers to your fork of the project. _upstream_
+refers to the official repository for this project.
-Reporting bugs
+== Discussions
-Upon identifying a bug or a DoS vulnerability, you SHOULD submit a ticket,
-regardless of your plans for fixing it. If you plan to fix the bug, you
-SHOULD discuss your plans to avoid having your work rejected.
+For general discussion about this project, please open a ticket.
+Feedback is always welcome and may transform in tasks to improve
+the project, so having the discussion start there is a plus.
-Upon identifying a security vulnerability in Erlang/OTP that leaves Cowboy
-vulnerable to attack, you SHOULD consult privately with the Erlang/OTP team
-to get the issue resolved.
+Alternatively you may try the #ninenines IRC channel on Freenode,
+or, if you need the discussion to stay private, you can send an
-Upon identifying a security vulnerability in Cowboy's `cowboy_static` module,
-you SHOULD submit a ticket, regardless of your plans for fixing it. Please
-ensure that all necessary details to reproduce are listed. You then SHOULD
-inform users on the mailing list about the issue, advising that they use
-another means for sending static files until the issue is resolved.
+== Support
-Upon identifying a security vulnerability in any other part of Cowboy, you
-SHOULD contact us directly by email. Please ensure that all necessary details
-to reproduce are listed.
+Free support is generally not available. The rule is that free
+support is only given if doing so benefits most users. In practice
+this means that free support will only be given if the issues are
+due to a fault in the project itself or its documentation.
-Before implementing a new feature, you SHOULD submit a ticket for discussion
-on your plans. The feature might have been rejected already, or the
-implementation might already be decided.
+Paid support is available for all price ranges. Please send an
+email to [email protected] for more information.
+== Bug reports
-You MUST fork the project's repository to your GitHub account by clicking
-on the `Fork` button.
+You *SHOULD* open a ticket for every bug you encounter, regardless
+of the version you use. A ticket not only helps the project ensure
+that bugs are squashed, it also helps other users who later run
+into this issue.
-Then, from your fork's page, copy the `Git Read-Only` URL to your clipboard.
-You MUST perform the following commands in the folder you choose, replacing
-`$URL` by the URL you just copied, `$UPSTREAM_URL` by the `Git Read-Only`
-project of the official repository, and `$PROJECT` by the name of this project.
+You *SHOULD NOT* open a ticket if another already exists for the
+same issue. You *SHOULD* instead either add more information by
+commenting on it, or simply comment to inform the maintainer that
+you are also affected. The maintainer *SHOULD* reply to every
+new ticket when they are opened. If the maintainer didn't say
+anything after a few days, you *SHOULD* write a new comment asking
+for more information.
-``` bash
-$ git clone "$URL"
+When you have a fix ready, you *SHOULD* open a pull request,
+even if the code does not fit the requirements discussed below.
+Providing a fix, even a dirty one, can help other users and/or
+at least get the maintainer on the right tracks.
+== Security reports
+You *SHOULD* open a ticket when you identify a DoS vulnerability
+in this project. You *SHOULD* include the resources needed to
+DoS the project; every project can be brought down if you have
+the necessary resources.
+You *SHOULD* send an email to [email protected] when you
+identify a security vulnerability. If the vulnerability originates
+from code inside Erlang/OTP itself, you *SHOULD* also consult
+with OTP Team directly to get the problem fixed upstream.
+== Feature requests
+Feature requests are always welcome. To be accepted, however, they
+must be well defined, make sense in the context of the project and
+benefit most users.
+Feature requests not benefiting most users may only be accepted
+when accompanied with a proper pull request.
+You *MUST* open a ticket to explain what the new feature is, even
+if you are going to submit a pull request for it.
+All these conditions are meant to ensure that the project stays
+lightweight and maintainable.
+== Documentation submissions
+You *SHOULD* follow the code submission guidelines to submit
+The documentation is available in the 'doc/src/' directory. There
+are three kinds of documentation: manual, guide and tutorials. The
+format for the documentation is Asciidoc.
+You *SHOULD* follow the same style as the surrounding documentation
+when editing existing files.
+You *MUST* include the source when providing media.
+== Examples submissions
+You *SHOULD* follow the code submission guidelines to submit examples.
+The examples are available in the 'examples/' directory.
+You *SHOULD* focus on exactly one thing per example.
+== Code submissions
+You *SHOULD* open a pull request to submit code.
+You *SHOULD* open a ticket to discuss backward incompatible changes
+before you submit code. This step ensures that you do not work on
+a large change that will then be rejected.
+You *SHOULD* send your code submission using a pull request on GitHub.
+If you can't, please send an email to [email protected] with your
+The following sections explain the normal GitHub workflow.
+=== Cloning
+You *MUST* fork the project's repository on GitHub by clicking on the
+_Fork_ button.
+On the right page of your fork's page is a field named _SSH clone URL_.
+Its contents will be identified as `$ORIGIN_URL` in the following snippet.
+On the right side of the project's repository page is a similar field.
+Its contents will be identified as `$UPSTREAM_URL`.
+Finally, `$PROJECT` is the name of this project.
+To setup your clone and be able to rebase when requested, run the
+following commands:
+$ git clone $ORIGIN_URL
$ git remote add upstream $UPSTREAM_URL
+=== Branching
-Before starting working on the code, you MUST update to `upstream`. The
-project is always evolving, and as such you SHOULD always strive to keep
-up to date when submitting patches to make sure they can be merged without
+You *SHOULD* base your branch on _master_, unless your patch applies
+to a stable release, in which case you need to base your branch on
+the stable branch, for example _1.0.x_.
-To update the current branch to `upstream`, you can use the following commands.
+The first step is therefore to checkout the branch in question:
-``` bash
+$ git checkout 1.0.x
+The next step is to update the branch to the current version from
+_upstream_. In the following snippet, replace _1.0.x_ by _master_
+if you are patching _master_.
$ git fetch upstream
-$ git rebase upstream/master
+$ git rebase upstream/1.0.x
-It may ask you to stash your changes, in which case you stash with:
+This last command may fail and ask you to stash your changes. When
+that happens, run the following sequence of commands:
-``` bash
$ git stash
+$ git rebase upstream/1.0.x
+$ git stash pop
-And put your changes back in with:
+The final step is to create a new branch you can work in. The name
+of the new branch is up to you, there is no particular requirement.
+Replace `$BRANCH` with the branch name you came up with:
-``` bash
-$ git stash pop
+$ git checkout -b $BRANCH
-You SHOULD use these commands both before working on your patch and before
-submitting the pull request. If conflicts arise it is your responsability
-to deal with them.
+_Your local copy_ is now ready.
-You MUST create a new branch for your work. First, ensure you are on `master`.
-You MUST update `master` to `upstream` before doing anything. Then create a
-new branch `$BRANCH` and switch to it.
+=== Source editing
-``` bash
-$ git checkout -b $BRANCH
+There are very few rules with regard to source code editing.
+You *MUST* use horizontal tabs for indentation. Use one tab
+per indentation level.
+You *MUST NOT* align code. You can only add or remove one
+indentation level compared to the previous line.
+You *SHOULD NOT* write lines more than about a hundred
+characters. There is no hard limit, just try to keep it
+as readable as possible.
+You *SHOULD* write small functions when possible.
+You *SHOULD* avoid a too big hierarchy of case clauses inside
+a single function.
+You *SHOULD* add tests to make sure your code works.
+=== Committing
+You *SHOULD* run Dialyzer and the test suite while working on
+your patch, and you *SHOULD* ensure that no additional tests
+fail when you finish.
+You can use the following command to run Dialyzer:
-You MUST use a an insightful branch name.
+$ make dialyze
-If you later need to switch back to an existing branch `$BRANCH`, you can use:
+You have two options to run tests. You can either run tests
+across all supported Erlang versions, or just on the version
+you are currently using.
-``` bash
-$ git checkout $BRANCH
+To test across all supported Erlang versions:
-Source editing
+$ make -k ci
-The following rules MUST be followed:
- * Indentation uses horizontal tabs (1 tab = 4 columns)
- * Do NOT align code; only indentation is allowed
- * Lines MUST NOT span more than 80 columns
+To test using the current version:
-The following rules SHOULD be followed:
- * Write small functions whenever possible
- * Avoid having too many clauses containing clauses containing clauses
+$ make tests
+You can then open Common Test logs in 'logs/all_runs.html'.
-You MUST ensure that all commits pass all tests and do not have extra
-Dialyzer warnings.
+Once all tests pass (or at least, no new tests are failing),
+you can commit your changes.
-Running tests is fairly straightforward. Note that you need at least
-Erlang/OTP R16B01 for the SSL tests to run.
+First you need to add your changes:
-``` bash
-make tests
+$ git add src/file_you_edited.erl
-Running Dialyzer requires some initial setup. You need to build the PLT
-file that Dialyzer will use for its analysis. This is a one-time operation.
-Dialyzer will take care of updating that file when needed.
+If you want an interactive session, allowing you to filter
+out changes that have nothing to do with this commit:
-``` bash
-make build-plt
+$ git add -p
-Once that is done, you can run Dialyzer.
+You *MUST* put all related changes inside a single commit. The
+general rule is that all commits must pass tests. Fix one bug
+per commit. Add one feature per commit. Separate features in
+multiple commits only if smaller parts of the feature make
+sense on their own.
-``` bash
-make dialyze
+Finally once all changes are added you can commit. This
+command will open the editor of your choice where you can
+put a proper commit title and message.
-You MUST put all the related work in a single commit. Fixing a bug is one
-commit, adding a feature is one commit, adding two features is two commits.
+$ git commit
-You MUST write a proper commit title and message. The commit title MUST be
-at most 72 characters; it is the first line of the commit text. The second
-line of the commit text MUST be left blank. The third line and beyond is the
-commit message. You SHOULD write a commit message. If you do, you MUST make
-all lines smaller than 80 characters. You SHOULD explain what the commit
-does, what references you used and any other information that helps
-understanding your work.
+Do not use the `-m` option as it makes it easy to break the
+following rules:
-Submitting the pull request
+You *MUST* write a proper commit title and message. The commit
+title is the first line and *MUST* be at most 72 characters.
+The second line *MUST* be left blank. Everything after that is
+the commit message. You *SHOULD* write a detailed commit
+message. The lines of the message *MUST* be at most 80 characters.
+You *SHOULD* explain what the commit does, what references you
+used and any other information that helps understanding why
+this commit exists. You *MUST NOT* include commands to close
+GitHub tickets automatically.
-You MUST push your branch `$BRANCH` to GitHub, using the following command:
+=== Cleaning the commit history
-``` bash
+If you create a new commit every time you make a change, however
+insignificant, you *MUST* consolidate those commits before
+sending the pull request.
+This is done through _rebasing_. The easiest way to do so is
+to use interactive rebasing, which allows you to choose which
+commits to keep, squash, edit and so on. To rebase, you need
+to give the original commit before you made your changes. If
+you only did two changes, you can use the shortcut form `HEAD^^`:
+$ git rebase -i HEAD^^
+=== Submitting the pull request
+You *MUST* push your branch to your fork on GitHub. Replace
+`$BRANCH` with your branch name:
$ git push origin $BRANCH
-You MUST then submit the pull request by using the GitHub interface.
-You SHOULD provide an explanatory message and refer to any previous ticket
-related to this patch.
+You can then submit the pull request using the GitHub interface.
+You *SHOULD* provide an explanatory message and refer to any
+previous ticket related to this patch. You *MUST NOT* include
+commands to close other tickets automatically.
+=== Updating the pull request
+Sometimes the maintainer will ask you to change a few things.
+Other times you will notice problems with your submission and
+want to fix them on your own.
+In either case you do not need to close the pull request. You
+can just push your changes again and, if needed, force them.
+This will update the pull request automatically.
+$ git push -f origin $BRANCH
+=== Merging
+This is an open source project maintained by independent developers.
+Please be patient when your changes aren't merged immediately.
+All pull requests run through a Continuous Integration service
+to ensure nothing gets broken by the changes submitted.
+Bug fixes will be merged immediately when all tests pass.
+The maintainer may do style changes in the merge commit if
+the submitter is not available. The maintainer *MUST* open
+a new ticket if the solution could still be improved.
+New features and backward incompatible changes will be merged
+when all tests pass and all other requirements are fulfilled.