path: root/doc
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authorLoïc Hoguin <[email protected]>2016-09-14 18:39:17 +0200
committerLoïc Hoguin <[email protected]>2016-09-14 18:39:17 +0200
commita231216b07876293dbcfde020cb0228510c5064d (patch)
treef1482c93173dcfe0102af240cff583d3a04803b8 /doc
parent06e1e2be688e74e4644dbd25a29f863d81e4cbaa (diff)
Update the Websocket handlers chapter
Diffstat (limited to 'doc')
1 files changed, 171 insertions, 102 deletions
diff --git a/doc/src/guide/ws_handlers.asciidoc b/doc/src/guide/ws_handlers.asciidoc
index 1411ab6..e1a7c25 100644
--- a/doc/src/guide/ws_handlers.asciidoc
+++ b/doc/src/guide/ws_handlers.asciidoc
@@ -1,20 +1,22 @@
-== Handling Websocket connections
+== Websocket handlers
-A special handler is required for handling Websocket connections.
-Websocket handlers allow you to initialize the connection,
-handle incoming frames from the socket, handle incoming Erlang
-messages and then clean up on termination.
+Websocket handlers provide an interface for upgrading HTTP/1.1
+connections to Websocket and sending or receiving frames on
+the Websocket connection.
-Websocket handlers essentially act as a bridge between the client
-and the Erlang system. They will typically do little more than
-socket communication and decoding/encoding of frames.
+As Websocket connections are established through the HTTP/1.1
+upgrade mechanism, Websocket handlers need to be able to first
+receive the HTTP request for the upgrade, before switching to
+Websocket and taking over the connection. They can then receive
+or send Websocket frames, handle incoming Erlang messages or
+close the connection.
-=== Initialization
+=== Upgrade
-First, the `init/2` callback is called. This callback is common
-to all handlers. To establish a Websocket connection, this function
-must return a `ws` tuple.
+The `init/2` callback is called when the request is received.
+To establish a Websocket connection, you must switch to the
+`cowboy_websocket` module:
@@ -22,15 +24,36 @@ init(Req, State) ->
{cowboy_websocket, Req, State}.
-Upon receiving this tuple, Cowboy will switch to the code
-that handles Websocket connections and perform the handshake
+Cowboy will perform the Websocket handshake immediately. Note
+that the handshake will fail if the client did not request an
+upgrade to Websocket.
-If the sec-websocket-protocol header was sent with the request
-for establishing a Websocket connection, then the Websocket
-handler *must* select one of these subprotocol and send it
-back to the client, otherwise the client might decide to close
-the connection, assuming no correct subprotocol was found.
+The Req object becomes unavailable after this function returns.
+Any information required for proper execution of the Websocket
+handler must be saved in the state.
+=== Subprotocol
+The client may provide a list of Websocket subprotocols it
+supports in the sec-websocket-protocol header. The server *must*
+select one of them and send it back to the client or the
+handshake will fail.
+For example, a client could understand both STOMP and MQTT over
+Websocket, and provide the header:
+sec-websocket-protocol: v12.stomp, mqtt
+If the server only understands MQTT it can return:
+sec-websocket-protocol: mqtt
+This selection must be done in `init/2`. An example usage could
@@ -39,10 +62,10 @@ init(Req, State) ->
undefined ->
{ok, Req, State};
Subprotocols ->
- case lists:keymember(<<"mychat2">>, 1, Subprotocols) of
+ case lists:keymember(<<"mqtt">>, 1, Subprotocols) of
true ->
Req2 = cowboy_req:set_resp_header(<<"sec-websocket-protocol">>,
- <<"mychat2">>, Req),
+ <<"mqtt">>, Req),
{ok, Req2, State};
false ->
{stop, Req, State}
@@ -50,42 +73,50 @@ init(Req, State) ->
-It is not recommended to wait too long inside the `init/2`
-function. Any extra initialization may be done after returning by
-sending yourself a message before doing anything. Any message sent
-to `self()` from `init/2` is guaranteed to arrive before
-any frames from the client.
+=== Post-upgrade initialization
+Cowboy has separate processes for handling the connection
+and requests. Because Websocket takes over the connection,
+the Websocket protocol handling occurs in a different
+process than the request handling.
-It is also very easy to ensure that this message arrives before
-any message from other processes by sending it before registering
-or enabling timers.
+This is reflected in the different callbacks Websocket
+handlers have. The `init/2` callback is called from the
+temporary request process and the `websocket_` callbacks
+from the connection process.
-// @todo This doesn't even work.
+This means that some initialization cannot be done from
+`init/2`. Anything that would require the current pid,
+or be tied to the current pid, will not work as intended.
+The optional `websocket_init/1` can be used instead:
-init(Req, State) ->
- self() ! post_init,
- %% Register process here...
- {cowboy_websocket, Req, State}.
-websocket_info(post_init, State) ->
- %% Perform post_init initialization here...
+websocket_init(State) ->
+ erlang:start_timer(1000, self(), <<"Hello!">>),
{ok, State}.
-=== Handling frames from the client
+All Websocket callbacks share the same return values. This
+means that we can send frames to the client right after
+the upgrade:
+websocket_init(State) ->
+ {reply, {text, <<"Hello!">>}, State}.
+=== Receiving frames
Cowboy will call `websocket_handle/2` whenever a text, binary,
-ping or pong frame arrives from the client. Note that in the
-case of ping and pong frames, no action is expected as Cowboy
-automatically replies to ping frames.
+ping or pong frame arrives from the client.
-The handler can decide to send frames to the socket, stop
-or just continue without sending anything.
+The handler can handle or ignore the frames. It can also
+send frames back to the client or stop the connection.
The following snippet echoes back any text frame received and
-ignores all others.
+ignores all others:
@@ -95,16 +126,20 @@ websocket_handle(_Frame, State) ->
{ok, State}.
-=== Handling Erlang messages
+Note that ping and pong frames require no action from the
+handler as Cowboy will automatically reply to ping frames.
+They are provided for informative purposes only.
+=== Receiving Erlang messages
Cowboy will call `websocket_info/2` whenever an Erlang message
-The handler can decide to send frames to the socket, stop
-or just continue without sending anything.
+The handler can handle or ignore the messages. It can also
+send frames to the client or stop the connection.
-The following snippet forwards any `log` message to the socket
-and ignores all others.
+The following snippet forwards log messages to the client
+and ignores all others:
@@ -114,60 +149,68 @@ websocket_info(_Info, State) ->
{ok, State}.
-=== Sending frames to the socket
+=== Sending frames
-Cowboy allows sending either a single frame or a list of
-frames to the socket, in which case the frames are sent
-sequentially. Any frame can be sent: text, binary, ping,
-pong or close frames.
+// @todo So yeah, reply makes no sense. Maybe change it to send. Sigh.
-The following example sends three frames using a single `reply`
+All `websocket_` callbacks share return values. They may
+send zero, one or many frames to the client.
+To send nothing, just return an ok tuple:
-websocket_info(hello_world, State) ->
+websocket_info(_Info, State) ->
+ {ok, State}.
+To send one frame, return a reply tuple with the frame to send:
+websocket_info(_Info, State) ->
+ {reply, {text, <<"Hello!">>}, State}.
+You can send frames of any type: text, binary, ping, pong
+or close frames.
+To send many frames at once, return a reply tuple with the
+list of frames to send:
+websocket_info(_Info, State) ->
{reply, [
{text, "Hello"},
{text, <<"world!">>},
{binary, <<0:8000>>}
- ], State};
-%% More websocket_info/2 clauses here...
+ ], State}.
-Note that the payload for text and binary frames is of type
-`iodata()`, meaning it can be either a `binary()` or an
+They are sent in the given order.
-Sending a `close` frame will immediately initiate the closing
-of the Websocket connection. Be aware that any additional
-frames sent by the client or any Erlang messages waiting to
-be received will not be processed. Also note that when replying
-a list of frames that includes close, any frame found after the
-close frame will not be sent.
-=== Ping and timeout
+=== Keeping the connection alive
-The biggest performance improvement you can do when dealing
-with a huge number of Websocket connections is to reduce the
-number of timers that are started on the server. A common use
-of timers when dealing with connections is for sending a ping
-every once in a while. This should be done exclusively on the
-client side. Indeed, a server handling one million Websocket
-connections will perform a lot better when it doesn't have to
-handle one million extra timers too!
+Cowboy will automatically respond to ping frames sent by
+the client. They are still forwarded to the handler for
+informative purposes, but no further action is required.
-Cowboy will automatically respond to ping frames sent by the
-client. It will still forward the frame to the handler for
-informative purpose, but no further action is required.
+Cowboy does not send ping frames itself. The handler can
+do it if required. A better solution in most cases is to
+let the client handle pings. Doing it from the handler
+would imply having an additional timer per connection and
+this can be a considerable cost for servers that need to
+handle large numbers of connections.
-Cowboy can be configured to automatically close the Websocket
-connection when no data arrives on the socket. It is highly
-recommended to configure a timeout for it, as otherwise you
-may end up with zombie "half-connected" sockets that may
-leave the process alive forever.
+Cowboy can be configured to close idle connections
+automatically. It is highly recommended to configure
+a timeout here, to avoid having processes linger longer
+than needed.
-A good timeout value is 60 seconds.
+The `init/2` callback can set the timeout to be used
+for the connection. For example, this would make Cowboy
+close connections idle for more than 60 seconds:
@@ -178,21 +221,47 @@ init(Req, State) ->
This value cannot be changed once it is set. It defaults to
-=== Hibernate
+// @todo Perhaps the default should be changed.
-Most tuples returned from handler callbacks can include an
-extra value `hibernate`. After doing any necessary operations
-following the return of the callback, Cowboy will hibernate
-the process.
+=== Saving memory
-It is highly recommended to hibernate processes that do not
-handle much traffic. It is a good idea to hibernate all
-connections by default and investigate only when you start
-noticing increased CPU usage.
+The Websocket connection process can be set to hibernate
+after the callback returns.
-=== Supporting older browsers
+Simply add an `hibernate` field to the ok or reply tuples:
+websocket_init(State) ->
+ {ok, State, hibernate}.
+websocket_handle(_Frame, State) ->
+ {ok, State, hibernate}.
-Unfortunately Websocket is a relatively recent technology,
-which means that not all browsers support it. A library like
-https://github.com/ninenines/bullet[Bullet] can be used to
-emulate Websocket connections on older browsers.
+websocket_info(_Info, State) ->
+ {reply, {text, <<"Hello!">>}, State, hibernate}.
+It is highly recommended to write your handlers with
+hibernate enabled, as this allows to greatly reduce the
+memory usage. Do note however that an increase in the
+CPU usage or latency can be observed instead, in particular
+for the more busy connections.
+=== Closing the connection
+The connection can be closed at any time, either by telling
+Cowboy to stop it or by sending a close frame.
+To tell Cowboy to close the connection, use a stop tuple:
+websocket_info(_Info, State) ->
+ {stop, State}.
+Sending a `close` frame will immediately initiate the closing
+of the Websocket connection. Note that when sending a list of
+frames that include a close frame, any frame found after the
+close frame will not be sent.